By Alison Robertson, Department of Plant Pathology; Roger Elmore, Department of Agronomy; Charles Hurburgh, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
Frost Oct. 10 and 11 ended the crop growing season in most parts of the state, at the same time the USDA announced October yield estimates of 186 bushels per acre in Iowa. Although high grain yields are expected, reports of quality issues are surfacing.
Cool wet fall conditions favor the development of ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. These white or pink ear rots are often found in ear corn stored too wet. Field moistures in the low 20s over a long period can favor growth of these fungi, provided temperatures are warm enough (usually above 45F). These fungi also can produce several toxins that harmful to people and livestock — vomitoxin, zearalenone, and fumonisin. Grain with field mold should be tested for mycotoxins before feeding.
Scouting and harvesting fields with disease problems
High moisture conditions favor growth of many ear and stalk rot fungi. Fields should be scouted as soon as possible to determine the extent of disease problems. To minimize losses due to ear rot and increased mycotoxin levels, it is recommended that producers harvest problem fields (greater than 10-15 percent incidence of ear rot) as soon as possible.
The longer the corn remains in the field, the greater the chance of toxin production. The toxins most likely to increase in the field at this time are those associated with Gibberella and Fusarium ear rots - namely vomitoxin, zearalenone and fumonisin.
Diplodia ear rot is more prevalent this season than in previous years. Although mycotoxins associated with Diplodia ear rot have not been reported in the U.S., grain quality will decrease substantially if the corn is allowed to remain in the field, thus early harvest is also recommended in these fields.
Adjust harvest equipment to minimize damage to kernels since mold and mycotoxin levels tend to be at greater levels in damaged kernels. Dry (to less than 15 percent moisture) and cool (to less than 45 degrees F) grain as quickly as possible to reduce further mold growth and toxin production.
Elevator operators, especially in eastern Iowa report cases of visible mold damage levels 5 percent and higher. In normal years, overall mold damage levels are generally less than 2 percent in freshly harvested corn. High damage levels in harvested grain create challenges for grain grading, particularly in the harvest rush. Damaged corn sharply reduces the future storage life of the grain.
Storage and harvest management will be particularly important. Field damaged grain, regardless of reason, should not be mixed with good grain. Producers should harvest around water holes, downed grain and immature areas. Do not mix damaged grain with good grain in storage. Regardless of condition, all grain should be aerated immediately to reduce temperature and equalize moisture.
Field damaged grain will not store beyond the winter months. Maintain 1 to 2 percentage points lower moisture than normal grain (for example, 13 percent corn instead of more typical 15 percent). Do not try to hold field damaged corn at higher moistures to avoid drying expense. If you suspect mycotoxin problems, check with crop insurance providers to see if adjustments may be needed, and how to represent the areas to be adjusted. Your veterinarian or the local USDA grain inspection service provider can assist with obtaining mycotoxin testing. Crop adjustments for quality problems, including mycotoxins, must be done on standing corn at or before harvest.
Accurate grading of field-damaged grain is always difficult in the rush of harvest. Expect end users, such as ethanol plants, to increase their level of grading because mold and weather damage reduce processing yields/byproduct quality.
An Official USDA grade is the standard against which buyer analysis should be compared. It is important that company graders be trained to match USDA graders. Alternatively, samples can be submitted to USDA grading agencies but this process is slower and more costly. In the event of a dispute, use an Official grader. The variety of damage types will be very challenging to evaluate. You can locate the official agency in your area from the USDA list of official inspection and/or weighing services.
Livestock Feed Issues
Livestock (swine, cattle, horses, poultry) are susceptible to certain mycotoxins. Therefore any grain that is fed to livestock should be tested for mycotoxins. Dairy producers should be particularly sensitive to mycotoxins. (See tables below.)
The wide variety of molds has created a range of mycotoxin possibilities — primarily vomitoxin, zearalenone and fumonisin. Prolonged cloudy, humid weather encourages production of the fusarium-based toxins.
Veterinarians can submit samples to the Iowa State Veterinary Diagnostic Lab. Alternatively, Official USDA grading agencies can do quick tests for these toxins. Toxins concentrate in the distillers grains three to four times the levels in the corn. Ethanol plants are doing quick screening tests on inbound grain, especially on low test weight corn (less than 50 lb/Bu).
Please see ISU Extension publications Aflatoxins in Corn - PM1800, and Corn Ear Rots, Storage Molds, Mycotoxins, and Animal Health - PM 1698, for guidelines on sampling and sample handling. The black light test will not detect infection by Fusarium spp.
• The USDA — GIPSA — Grain Fungal Diseases & Mycotoxin Reference — Sept 2006 has additional information regarding Vomitoxin and Fumonisum; the FDA — Compliance Program Guidance Manual — 7371.003 — Dec 2005 contains the reference Guidance for Fumonisins in Animal Feeds .
• 2009 Corn Quality Issues — Hurburgh, Elmore
• 2009 Corn Quality Issues - Storage Management — Hurburgh, Elmore
Alison Robertson is an assistant professor of plant pathology with research and extension responsibilities in field crop diseases. Robertson may be reached at (515) 294-6708 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Roger Elmore is a professor of agronomy with research and extension responsibilities in corn production. He can be contacted by email at email@example.com or (515) 294-6655. Charles Hurburgh is a professor of Agricultural and Biosystems . He can be contacted at (515) 294-8629 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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