Cover Crop Seed and Palmer Amaranth

September 14, 2016
ICM News

Most people are aware of Palmer amaranth seed contamination in native seed mixes. These findings have led to questions about whether cover crop seed might also be a source of Palmer amaranth. We are not aware of any situations of cover crop seed used in Iowa being a source of Palmer amaranth, and have not heard of this situation in other Midwest states. 

We feel the risk should be very small for two reasons. The first is that the majority of cover crop species grown in Iowa are winter annuals (e.g. cereal rye, oats), whereas Palmer amaranth is a summer annual. Because of this difference in life cycle, cover crop species are harvested when there would be no mature Palmer amaranth present to directly contaminate the crop seed. The second reason is that most winter annual cover crop seed planted in Iowa is produced in Iowa, South Dakota, and North Dakota. None of these states currently have widespread Palmer amaranth (not considering the introduction of Palmer amaranth in conservation plantings this season), therefore reducing the likelihood of contamination.   

There is no doubt that cover crop seed can be the source of weed seed. In most cases, the weed seed are winter annual species that are easily managed with tillage and/or herbicides. We cannot rule out the possibility of cover crop seed being contaminated with Palmer amaranth seed. If cover crop seed did contain this problematic weed, it would likely be due to seed being present in machinery used to harvest or clean seed, rather than plants growing in the cover crop seed field. In this situation, the number of weed seed in the cover crop seed would be much lower than has been observed in conservation plantings across the state.

To summarize, we are not aware of any cases where Palmer amaranth was introduced via seed of traditional cover crops. The risk of introducing this new species can be minimized by confirming that the source of the seed is from a state where Palmer amaranth is not widespread and purchasing Certified Seed. Since Palmer amaranth is not classified as Noxious in Iowa, Palmer amaranth seed is not restricted in Certified Seed, and its presence in the crop seed does not need to be listed. However, Certified Seed typically is produced under more stringent conditions, thus reducing the risk of contamination with weeds in general.

Related articles:
New Palmer Amaranth Identification Bulletin Available
Managing Palmer Amaranth in Conservation Plantings
Palmer Amaranth in Iowa-What We Know
Palmer Amaranth-A Highly Variable Weed

Photo by Meaghan Anderson

Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished without further permission if published as written and if credit is given to the author, Integrated Crop Management News, and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. If this article is to be used in any other manner, permission from the author is required. This article was originally published on September 14, 2016. The information contained within may not be the most current and accurate depending on when it is accessed.

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Bob Hartzler Professor of Agronomy

Dr. Bob Hartzler is a professor of agronomy and an extension weed specialist. He conducts research on weed biology and how it impacts the efficacy of weed management programs in corn and soybean. Dr. Hartzler also teaches undergraduate classes in weed science and weed identificatio...

Meaghan Anderson Field Agronomist in EC Iowa

Meaghan Anderson is a field agronomist in east central Iowa and an extension program specialist at Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Educational programming is available for farmers, agribusinesses, pesticide applicators, certified crop advisors, and other individuals intere...