Black cutworm (BCW) is a migratory pest that arrives in Iowa with spring storms each year. Black cutworm moths lay eggs in and near crop fields, and larvae can feed on leaves or cut corn seedlings. Larvae must attain a certain size (4th instar) to be large enough to cut corn plants, and cutting can occur until plants reach the V5 stage. Black cutworm is sporadic and unpredictable, making it essential to scout to determine whether BCW larvae are present in a field and if management is required. Because BCW is sporadic, it is usually not economical to use preventative insecticide applications; however, rescue treatments can be very effective if scouting reveals larvae. Although late-April 2023 was cool, it has been warm enough that black cutworm is likely developing more quickly this year than previous years.
In a typical year, early planted corn grows quickly enough in the spring to escape black cutworm feeding. However, cool and wet conditions in mid-April kept planters out of the field until recently, and any corn already planted grew slowly. This, combined with accelerated development of black cutworm, may result in the “perfect storm” for BCW injury: seedling corn (less than V5) in the field and BCW larvae large enough to cut corn plants. Use the predicted cutting dates in this article as a guide to begin scouting fields before the cutting date predicted in your area. Fields with cover crops or other green tissue (i.e., weeds) this spring should be prioritized since they serve as egg-laying sites for migrating moths.
Predicting cutting dates
We can predict when BCW will reach the 4th instar based on accumulating degree days and the occurrence of significant flights. A significant flight is defined as the capture of eight or more BCW moths over a two-night period in a pheromone trap. Larvae reach the 4th instar after 300 GDD have accumulated since a significant flight.
The Iowa Moth Trapping Network enlists the help of volunteers around the state to monitor BCW activity annually. Counties that have reported significant flights include Hancock (April 10), Taylor (April 11, April 15, and April 20), Mahaska (April 12), Buena Vista (April 19), Floyd (April 21), and Keokuk (April 24).
Figure 1 shows the predicted cutting dates for BCW in each crop reporting district. These cutting dates are estimated by combining actual, historical, and forecasted degree day data. BCW trapping will continue throughout May, and any additional significant flights that occur will be included in our weekly ICM Blog updates. Additional significant flights in an area may represent prolonged feeding of BCW larvae, so continue to scout until corn reaches V5.
Capturing BCW moths in a pheromone trap does not necessarily mean economic infestations will occur in a particular location. Scouting fields is the only way to determine if BCW are present and whether management is warranted. Combine scouting for BCW with early season stand assessments. Missing or cut plants are signs of black cutworm feeding but dig in the soil near affected plants to confirm larvae are present. Other early season pests (grubs, seed corn maggot, wireworms) may also be present. Refer to this encyclopedia article to learn more about black cutworm identification, biology, scouting, and management.
Keep up with moth flights!
You can keep up with the Iowa Moth Trapping Network in a few ways:
- Subscribe to the ICM Blog and read the weekly updates.
- Go to https://corn.ipmpipe.org/insects/ to see true armyworm and black cutworm maps with reports from Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin.
If you live near the Iowa border, information from trapping networks in other states may be useful to you. Some links to out-of-state resources are listed below, but others may be available:
- University of Minnesota
- University of Missouri
- University of Illinois
- University of Nebraska-Lincoln
If you see any fields with BCW larvae or injury while scouting, please let us know! Contact us via email (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Twitter (@erinwhodgson and @ashleyn_dean). This information will help us refine cutting predictions and scouting recommendations in the future.
Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished without further permission if published as written and if credit is given to the author, Integrated Crop Management News, and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. If this article is to be used in any other manner, permission from the author is required. This article was originally published on May 8, 2023. The information contained within may not be the most current and accurate depending on when it is accessed.