Waterhemp is a dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants) pigweed with a high genetic diversity. Consequently, this pigweed has a high propensity to adapt to control tactics and has evolved resistance to herbicides from as many as 6 or 7 different herbicide groups (HGs). Out of 75 waterhemp populations collected from corn/soybean fields in Iowa in fall 2019, almost 25% had a four-way multiple resistance to HGs 2 (ALS inhibitors), 5 (atrazine), 9 (glyphosate), and 14 (PPO inhibitors).
Integrated Crop Management News
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There are hundreds of soybean varieties with resistance against the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Most of the varieties available for Iowa in the last several decades have had resistance genes from a breeding line called PI 88788. SCN resistance from PI 88788 is losing or has lost its effectiveness. Farmers should grow soybean varieties with other sources of resistance, if possible. This article lists soybean varieties available for 2021 in Iowa with resistance sources that are different from PI 88788.
With support from the soybean checkoff through the United Soybean Board, Iowa State University researchers evaluated foliar fungicides on soybean in 2020. Because dry weather affected all seven field locations, this year was really an evaluation of fungicides largely in the absence of disease. Seventeen fungicides were tested at the R3 (beginning pod) growth stage, at the recommended label rate.
Resistant soybean varieties are critical for managing the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). There are nearly 850 SCN-resistant varieties in a newly updated publication from extension. Almost all of the varieties have the breeding line PI 88788 as the genetic source of resistance. Many SCN populations in Iowa now have high levels of reproduction on varieties with this resistance. Only 39 varieties in the new publication have resistance genetics from a source other than PI 88788. This article discusses the range of SCN-resistant varieties available and includes recommendations for using resistant varieties to manage SCN most effectively.
The dry, warmer-than-normal growing season this year presents significant challenges for managing soil and crop residue this fall.
Sampling soil this fall following the dry conditions this past summer, and in some places continuing up to this time, may result in lower than expected soil-test results for phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and pH. Especially if soil samples are collected before any significant rainfall. Therefore, farmers and crop consultants should interpret those soil-test results with caution.
Fall is an ideal time to collect soil cores from fields to determine if the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is present and to assess the population densities (numbers). There are reasons to sample fields in which soybeans and corn were grown in 2020. Multiple private soil testing laboratories can process samples for SCN as can the ISU Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic. Guidelines for fall SCN soil samples are provided in this article.
Wind damage or stalk rots can cause lodged corn that is difficult to gather with standard corn harvesting equipment. Powered attachments for corn heads are available to assist the gathering process and reduce the number of missed stalks and ears. These attachments assist the flow of corn stalks up and over the snouts and into the gathering chains and cross augers. While required travel speed may still be significantly reduced from normal, these attachments can greatly reduce head plugging and field gathering losses.
A monitoring network was established this year to monitor corn rootworm adults in Iowa cornfields, similar to the moth trapping network we manage in the spring each year. The goal was to help farmers and agronomic professionals monitor populations of northern corn rootworm (NCR) and western corn rootworm (WCR) in their fields and assess management decisions. A secondary goal was to estimate the ratio of NCR to WCR throughout the state and describe changing ratios into the future. The sampling protocol used is detailed at the end of the article.
The August 10 derecho left portions of Iowa with broken, uprooted, and damaged corn across a significant portion of the state. Paired with drought conditions across the state, especially in west central Iowa, growers should be on the lookout for mycotoxin issues in this years’ crop, especially aflatoxins and fumonisins, as discussed in “Drought and Derecho Increase Mycotoxin Risk in 2020 Iowa Corn Crop-Scouting and Monitoring Fields”. For fields that are intended to be harvested, considerations for harvest, mycotoxin testing, and storage are presented below.