The SCN-resistant Soybean Variety Trial Program at Iowa State University assesses the yield performance and SCN control provided by hundreds of SCN-resistant soybean varieties each year. Variety trial experiments are conducted annually in each of Iowa’s nine crop reporting districts. Harvest of the 2021 experiments was completed in late October, and processing of soil samples from the research plots to determine end-of-season SCN egg population densities is ongoing. The SCN data from one experiment, in Fruitland, Iowa, have become available. The results provide an eye-opening look at how much SCN reproduction occurred in 2021 as well as how control of SCN numbers can affect soybean yields.
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There are several different breeding lines, called sources of resistance, that are available to develop soybean varieties that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). More than 95% of the resistant varieties available to Iowa farmers in the last 15 years have had resistance from the breeding line named PI 88788. As a consequence of continuous widespread use of this resistance, SCN populations in many fields throughout Iowa now have increased reproduction on varieties with resistance from PI 88788. Farmers are advised to grow soybean varieties with SCN resistance from other genetic sources in rotation with high-yielding varieties with PI 88788 SCN resistance. This article lists 36 varieties available for Iowa soybean farmers in 2022 in maturity groups I, II, and III with SCN resistance from two sources of resistance different from PI 88788.
Growing resistant varieties in rotation with nonhost corn and using nematode-protectant soybean seed treatments is recommended for integrated management of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). ISU compiles a list of soybean varieties with resistance to SCN each year. This year’s publication was recently completed and is available online. There are 872 varieties in the publication, 96% with resistance from PI 88788, which has been used almost exclusively for 15 years. Due to prolonged widespread use of PI 88788 SCN resistance in Iowa, SCN populations have developed increased reproduction on varieties with PI 88788 resistance and SCN is causing increasing yield losses. This article discusses the situation and gives guidance on how farmers should manage SCN with so few choices of resistance genetics available.
Fall is one of the best times for managing perennial and biennial weeds found in pastures or other areas maintained in perennial grass. As perennials prepare for the upcoming winter, they move energy reserves from shoots to their perennial vegetative reproductive structures (e.g. rhizomes, perennial rootstocks).
The 2021 cropping season had variable rainfall across Iowa. Since crop harvest began, rainfall also has been variable, and temperatures have generally been above normal. Therefore, it is not surprising to hear of variable but often higher than normal end-of-season cornstalk nitrate test levels and postharvest soil nitrate levels. Farmers and crop consultants should use caution in interpreting these results for N fertilization of next year corn.
End-of-season cornstalk nitrate test
The 2021 cropping season had very variable rainfall across Iowa with either drought or excessive rainfall. Highly variable landscape and soil moisture retention capacity in many fields also may cause high within-field yield variability. Reduced potential income due to low yield in some areas combined with currently very high fertilizer prices are creating significant uncertainty among producers about P, K, and liming decisions for the 2022 crop season. Several factors need to be considered.
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major yield-reducing pathogen of soybeans throughout Iowa and many other states. SCN-resistant soybean varieties have been used for decades to produce profitable yields and keep SCN numbers in check, but most resistant varieties have lost much of their effectiveness. Also, SCN reproduction in fields where soybeans were grown likely was much greater than normal in 2021 due to hot, dry weather. Collecting soil samples in the fall is advised to determine the SCN situation in fields. This article outlines guidelines for sampling fields for SCN, gives information on where to send SCN soil samples, and provides guidance on managing fields that are infested with SCN.
The derecho left many Iowa farmers with significant volunteer corn this growing season, and unfortunately some may be facing a similar situation for 2022 after late August storms flattened fields.
In a sudden turn of weather events, there have been several severe storms in the northeast and east central crop reporting districts of Iowa. These storms have created the potential for grain quality problems; of the most immediate need for action are those corn and soybean fields that have been flooded above the grain level. Fields with lodging will have more grain susceptible to flooding.
Fall armyworm is native to tropical regions in the western hemisphere. It can only successfully overwinter in the southern US (Texas and Florida), but the adults are strong flyers and capable of long-distance migration to northern states. Multiple migration events are possible each summer, and adults can be found in Iowa from June to August. This year, they are more abundant in the Midwest than usual and are causing late-season issues. As the common name suggests, larvae can still be active in October. Droughty conditions favor their development.