This week, the first adult soybean gall midges (Photo 1) were collected in Iowa and Minnesota. Thanks to Lauren Schwarck (Corteva Agriscience) for monitoring several emergence traps this year. The positive detections were located in Buena Vista County, an area with persistent soybean gall midge populations since at least 2017.
Integrated Crop Management News
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Corn rootworm egg hatch in Iowa occurs from late May to the middle of June, with an average peak hatching date of June 6 in central Iowa. Even with recent warm temperatures, hatching is a bit delayed this year due to cool spring temperatures. Development is driven by soil temperature and measured by growing degree days (GDDs). Research suggests about 50% of egg hatch occurs between 684-767 accumulated GDDs (since January 1; base 52°F, soil). Most areas in Iowa will reach peak corn rootworm egg hatch within a week (Figure 1).
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most damaging pathogen of soybeans in the United States. Farmers in Iowa successfully managed SCN for many years by growing SCN-resistant soybeans in rotation with corn. However, almost all resistant varieties contain SCN resistance genes from the same breeding line, named PI 88788. Not surprisingly, SCN populations in fields throughout the state are overcoming the PI 88788 resistance because of use of those resistance genes for more than 30 years.
Iowa State University (ISU) Extension and Outreach field agronomists have been receiving phone calls and texts about striped corn leaves this past week. There are many reasons for striped corn, and the cause of light green, whitish, or yellowish stripes sometimes is not obvious. Here is a review of some of the reasons for striped corn and also methods to distinguish what might be causing the stripes.
This spring, we have had several reports of fields with high numbers of grubs from field agronomists in central Iowa. There are multiple species of white grubs in Iowa, including the Japanese beetle. Recent warm temperatures are accelerating insect development, and with forecasted temperatures, Japanese beetle emergence could begin in southern Iowa counties this week (Figure 1). Japanese beetle adults will begin emergence when approximately 1,030 growing degree days (GDD; base 50°F) have accumulated since January 1 and will continue emerging until 2,150 GDD have accumulated.
Plant-parasitic nematodes that feed on corn are relatively common in Iowa, but their presence in fields does not mean that damage and yield loss are occurring. The number of nematodes necessary to damage corn varies greatly among nematode species, and the potential for yield loss can only be established by determining the types and numbers of nematodes present in a field. This article explains the “why” and “how” of sampling corn fields to determine if nematodes are causing damage and are likely to reduce corn yields. Management options for nematodes on corn also are listed in the article.
Stalk borer is an occasional pest of corn, but it can be persistent in some fields, especially those fields near fence rows, terraces, and waterways that serve as overwintering sites. Tracking degree days is a useful tool to estimate when common stalk borer larvae begin moving into cornfields from their overwintering hosts. Foliar insecticide applications are only effective when larvae are migrating and exposed to the insecticide. Start scouting corn for larvae when 1,300-1,400 degree days (base 41°F) have accumulated.
ISU Extension and Outreach Field Agronomists recently highlighted a significant number of phone calls related to fomesafen carryover injury to corn rotated from 2020 soybeans.
“How much nitrogen (N) has been lost?” is a question we get this time of year, particularly in areas that have received more rainfall. Although most of the state is dry, the southeast part of the state has received above normal rainfall, and there are valid concerns that some N has been lost and additional N could be needed.
While we cannot specifically answer the question of how much N has been lost due to the complexity of the N cycle; below are some approaches we can use in making estimates on the status of N and the potential need for additional N during the growing season.
Canada thistle has been a consistent threat to crop production and perennial habitats since its introduction to the state in the late 1800s. Canada thistle is commonly found in crop fields, pastures, hayfields, CRP, and other full sun habitats. While fall is typically the best time to manage this weed species, late spring, when Canada thistle plants are in the bud or early bloom stage, is a close second for providing consistent herbicidal control. Now is time to be treating Canada thistle in pastures, hayfields, and other non-crop areas if you don’t want to wait for fall.